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Some of the Developments in School Readiness Components between Birth and Age 5

Age Motor Development                  Emotional Health/Positive Approach to New Experiences Social Knowledge and Competence                                                                    Language Skills                            General Knowledge and Cognitive Skills
Two months sucking and other survival reflexes, little voluntary control unable to differentiate self from other no concept of being able to influence another reflex crying when nervous system is over stimulated no understanding of cause-and- effect
One year independently mobile using non-walking methods, can walk holding onto something, able to grasp items using thumb and forefinger can differentiate primary caregiver(s) from others, will use caregiver as a secure emotional and physical base for exploration understands that others can act and be acted upon, engages in games with familiar adults, imitates others skills at using gestures, e.g., holds up arms to be picked up. Imitates words, first spontaneous and deliberate word uttered around age one engages in task variation and deliberate experimentation, has some sense of cause- and-effect in a specific situation
Two years able to walk and climb stairs, eye-hand coordination sufficiently developed to allow manipulation of large objects increasing self-confidence, will move a considerable distance from caregiver when exploring interested in playing along side other children, but not actually with them in a joint activity can string two or three words together in a simple sentence, e.g., “look truck” begins to move from reliance on replica objects, e.g. a doll, in pretend play to use of substitute objects, e.g., a pillow for a “baby”
Three years skilled at climbing and jumping, fine motor coordination sufficiently developed to allow manipulation of large objects beginning to regulate own behaviour, tries to handle emotions such as frustration but still needs adult help and guidance interested in playing with other children. Has difficulty sharing because of difficulty taking the perspective of another has some basic idea of grammar, e.g., adds “s” for a plural, asks questions, forms multi- word sentences shows some basic understanding of categorization, e.g., can sort by colour or by shape, but makes mistakes
Four years can control a pencil and cut with scissors can control own emotions, such as anger or frustration, in many situations with minimal adult assistance plays with other children. Is able to take turns and engage in cooperative activities can join simple sentences together to describe a past or present action or experience reliably sorts by colour or shape, but not by both simultaneously
Five years able to write letters, turn book pages without tearing them has some ability to stop and think before deciding how to act, is curious about the world outside the home. has basic peer relationships skills, e.g., knows how to enter a group can hold a prolonged conversation and express ideas by the end of the year, can sort by both colour and shape simultaneously
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